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||Informatievoorziening in de zorg
This document specifies the common conventions required for the cart-to-host as well as cart-to-cart interchange of specific patient data (demographic, recording, ...), ECG signal data, ECG measurement and ECG interpretation results. This document specifies the content and structure of the information which is to be interchanged between digital ECG carts and computer ECG management systems, as well as other computer systems where ECG data can be stored. This document relates to the conventional recording of the electrocardiogram, i.e. the so-called standard 12-lead electrocardiogram and the vectorcardiogram (VCG). Initially, the electric connections used for recording the ECG were made to the limbs only. These connections to the right arm (RA), left arm (LA), left leg (LL) and right leg (RL) were introduced by Einthoven. The electrical variations detected by these leads are algebraically combined to form the bipolar leads I, II, and III. Lead I, for example records the difference between the voltages of the electrodes placed on the left arm and the right arm. The unipolar electrocardiographic leads (aVR, aVL, aVF and the precordial leads V1 to V6) were introduced much later, starting in 1933. In these leads, potentials are recorded at one location with respect to a level which does not vary significantly in electrical activity during cardiac contraction. The "augmented" limb lead potentials are recorded with reference to the average potential of (L+F), (R+F) and (L+R) respectively. The unipolar chest leads are recorded with reference to the average potential of (RA+RL+LL)/3 which is called the Wilson "central terminal" (CT). In vectorcardiography recordings are made of three mutually perpendicular leads, running parallel to one of the rectilinear coordinate axes of the body. The axes are the X-axis going right to left, the Y-axis with a top to bottom orientation, and the Z or front to back axis. In some research centers, so-called body surface maps are obtained by placing many (from 24 to 124 or even more) closely spaced electrodes around the torso. This document has not been designed to handle exchange of such recordings, although future extensions could be made to this end. The standard has also not been designed to exchange specialized recordings of intracardiac potentials or of the so-called Holter or other long-term ECG recordings made for monitoring cardiac rhythm. This document also does not address exercise ECG recordings. ECG computer processing can be reduced to 3 principal stages: 1) data acquisition, encoding, transmission and storage; 2) pattern recognition and feature extraction, i.e. ECG measurement; 3) diagnostic classification. In each of these stages there are important needs for standardization and quality assurance testing. The scope of the document is confined to the first of these three stages.