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1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3).
1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11).
1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning (SGS) procedure: (1) Isotope Specific (Mass) Calibration, the original SGS procedure, uses standards of known radionuclide masses to determine detector response in a mass versus corrected count rate calibration that applies only to those specific radionuclides for which it is calibrated, and (2) Efficiency Curve Calibration, an alternative method, typically uses non-SNM radionuclide sources to determine system detection efficiency vs. gamma energy and thereby calibrate for all gamma-emitting radionuclides of interest (12).
18.104.22.168 Efficiency Curve Calibration, over the energy range for which the efficiency is defined, has the advantage of providing calibration for many gamma-emitting nuclides for which half-life and gamma emission intensity data are available.
1.3 The assay technique may be applicable to loadings up to several hundred grams of nuclide in a 208-L [55-gal] drum, with more restricted ranges to be applicable depending on specific packaging and counting equipment considerations.
1.4 Measured transmission values must be available for use in calculation of segment-specific attenuation corrections at the energies of analysis.
1.5 A related method, SGS with calculated correction factors based on item content and density, is not included in this standard.
1.6 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary statements are given in Section 10.
|Engelse titel||Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material in Low Density Scrap and Waste by Segmented Passive Gamma-Ray Scanning|