Over deze norm
1.1 This test method covers the static determination of turbidity in water. Static refers to a sample that is removed from its source and tested in an isolated instrument. (See Section 4.)
1.2 This test method is applicable to the measurement of turbidities greater than 1.0 turbidity unit (TU). The upper end of the measurement range was left undefined because different technologies described in this test method can cover very different ranges. The round robin study covered the range of 0–4000 turbidity units because instrument verification in this range can typically be covered by standards that can be consistently reproduced.
1.3 Many of the turbidity units and instrument designs covered in this test method are numerically equivalent in calibration when a common calibration standard is applied across those designs listed in Table 1. Measurement of a common calibration standard of a defined value will also produce equivalent results across these technologies.
1.3.1 In this test method calibration standards are often defined in NTU values, but the other assigned turbidity units, such as those in Table 1 are equivalent. For example, a 1 NTU formazin standard is also a 1 FNU, a 1 FAU, a 1 BU, and so forth.
1.4 This test method does not purport to cover all available technologies for high-level turbidity measurement.
1.5 This test method was tested on different natural waters and wastewater, and with standards that will serve as surrogates to samples. It is the user's responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for waters of untested matrices.
1.6 Depending on the constituents within a high-level sample, the proposed sample preparation and measurement methods may or may not be applicable. Those samples with the highest particle densities typically prove to be the most difficult to measure. In these cases, and alternative measurement method such as the process monitoring method can be considered.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Refer to the MSDSs for all chemicals used in this procedure.
TABLE 1 Summary of Known Instrument Designs, Applications, Ranges, and Reporting Units
|Prominent Application||Key Design Features||Typical|
|Nephelometric non-ratio (NTU)||White light turbidimeters. Comply with USEPA Method 180.1 for low level turbidity monitoring.||Detector centered at 90° relative to the incident light beam. Uses a white light spectral source.||0.0–40||0.0–40 Regulatory|
|Ratio White Light turbidimeters (NTRU)||Complies with ISWTR regulations and Standard Method 2130B. Can be used for both low and high level measurement.||Used a white light spectral source. Primary detector centered at 90°. Other detectors located at other angles. An instrument algorithm uses a combination of detector readings to generate the turbidity reading.||0–10 000||0–40 Regulatory|
0–10 000 other
|Nephelometric, near-IR turbidimeters, non-ratiometric (FNU)||Complies with ISO 7027. The wavelength is less susceptible to color interferences. Applicable for samples with color and good for low level monitoring.||Detector centered at 90° relative to the incident light beam. Uses a near-IR (780–900 nm) monochromatic light source.||0–1000||0–40 Regulatory (non-US)|
|Nephelometric near-IR turbidimeters, ratio metric (FNRU)||Complies with ISO 7027. Applicable for samples with high levels of color and for monitoring to high turbidity levels.||Uses a near-IR monochromatic light source (780–900 nm). Primary detector centered at 90°. Other detectors located at other angles. An instrument algorithm uses a combination of detector readings to generate the turbidity reading.||0–10 000||0–40 Regulatory|
0–10 000 other
|Surface Scatter Turbidimeters (NTU)||Turbidity is determined through light scatter from or near the surface of a sample.||Detector centered at 90° relative to the incident light beam. Uses a white light spectral source.||10–10 000||10–10 000|
|Formazin Back Scatter (FBU)||Not applicable for regulatory purposes. Best applied to high turbidity samples. Backscatter is common with but not all only probe technology and is best applied in higher turbidity samples.||Uses a near-IR monochromatic light source in the 780–900 nm range. Detector geometry is between 90° and 180° relative to the incident light beam.||100–10 000+||100–10 000|
|Backscatter Unit (BU)||Not applicable for regulatory purposes. Best applied for samples with high level turbidity.||Uses a white light spectral source (400–680 nm range). Detector geometry is between 90° and 180° relative to the incident light beam.||10–10 000+||100–10 000+|
|Formazin attenuation unit (FAU)||May be applicable for some regulatory purposes. This is commonly applied with spectrophotometers. Best applied for samples with high level turbidity.||Detector is geometrically centered at 0° relative to incident beam (attenuation). Wavelength is 780–900 nm.||20–1000||20–1000 Regulatory|
|Light attenuation unit (AU)||Not applicable for some regulatory purposes. This is commonly applied with spectrophotometers.||Detector is geometrically centered at 0° relative to incident beam (attenuation). Wavelength is 400–680 nm.||20–1000||20–1000|
|Nephelometric Turbidity Multibeam Unit (NTMU)||Is applicable to EPA regulatory method GLI Method 2. Applicable to drinking water and wastewater monitoring applications.||Detectors are geometrically centered at 0° and 90°. An instrument algorithm uses a combination of detector readings, which may differ for turbidities varying magnitude.||0.02–4000||0–40 Regulatory|
|Engelse titel||Standard Test Method for Determination of Turbidity Above 1 Turbidity Unit (TU) in Static Mode|