ASTM E112 - 13 en

Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size

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Status Definitief
Aantal pagina's 28
Gepubliceerd op 01-10-2013
Taal Engels

1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of average grain size and include the comparison procedure, the planimetric (or Jeffries) procedure, and the intercept procedures. These test methods may also be applied to nonmetallic materials with structures having appearances similar to those of the metallic structures shown in the comparison charts. These test methods apply chiefly to single phase grain structures but they can be applied to determine the average size of a particular type of grain structure in a multiphase or multiconstituent specimen.

1.2 These test methods are used to determine the average grain size of specimens with a unimodal distribution of grain areas, diameters, or intercept lengths. These distributions are approximately log normal. These test methods do not cover methods to characterize the nature of these distributions. Characterization of grain size in specimens with duplex grain size distributions is described in Test Methods E1181. Measurement of individual, very coarse grains in a fine grained matrix is described in Test Methods E930.

1.3 These test methods deal only with determination of planar grain size, that is, characterization of the two-dimensional grain sections revealed by the sectioning plane. Determination of spatial grain size, that is, measurement of the size of the three-dimensional grains in the specimen volume, is beyond the scope of these test methods.

1.4 These test methods describe techniques performed manually using either a standard series of graded chart images for the comparison method or simple templates for the manual counting methods. Utilization of semi-automatic digitizing tablets or automatic image analyzers to measure grain size is described in Test Methods E1382.

1.5 These test methods deal only with the recommended test methods and nothing in them should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness of purpose of the materials tested.

1.6 The measured values are stated in SI units, which are regarded as standard. Equivalent inch-pound values, when listed, are in parentheses and may be approximate.

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.8 The paragraphs appear in the following order:





Referenced Documents




Significance and Use


Generalities of Application




Test Specimens




Preparation of Photomicrographs


Comparison Procedure


Planimetric (Jeffries) Procedure


General Intercept Procedures


Heyn Linear Intercept Procedure


Circular Intercept Procedures


Hilliard Single-Circle Procedure


Abrams Three-Circle Procedure


Statistical Analysis


Specimens with Non-equiaxed Grain Shapes


Specimens Containing Two or More Phases or Constituents




Precision and Bias






 Basis of ASTM Grain Size Numbers

Annex A1

 Equations for Conversions Among Various Grain Size Measurements

Annex A2

 Austenite Grain Size, Ferritic and Austenitic Steels

Annex A3

 Fracture Grain Size Method

Annex A4

 Requirements for Wrought Copper and Copper-Base Alloys

Annex A5

 Application to Special Situations

Annex A6



 Results of Interlaboratory Grain Size Determinations

Appendix X1

 Referenced Adjuncts

Appendix X2


ICS-code 77.040.01
Engelse titel Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size



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