1.1 The two primary uses of three-element strain gage rosettes are (a) to determine the directions and magnitudes of the principal surface strains and (b) to determine residual stresses. Residual stresses are treated in a separate ASTM standard, Test Method E 837. This practice defines a reference axis for each of the two principal types of rosette configurations used and presents equations for data analysis. This is important for consistency in reporting results and for avoiding ambiguity in data analysis—especially when computers are used. There are several possible sets of equations, but the set presented here is perhaps the most common.