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1.1 These test methods cover a number of recognized procedures for determining the nonmetallic inclusion content of wrought steel. Macroscopic methods include macroetch, fracture, step-down, and magnetic particle tests. Microscopic methods include five generally accepted systems of examination. In these microscopic methods, inclusions are assigned to a category based on similarities in morphology, and not necessarily on their chemical identity. Metallographic techniques that allow simple differentiation between morphologically similar inclusions are briefly discussed. While the methods are primarily intended for rating inclusions, constituents such as carbides, nitrides, carbonitrides, borides, and intermetallic phases may be rated using some of the microscopic methods. In some cases, alloys other than steels may be rated using one or more of these methods; the methods will be described in terms of their use on steels.
1.2 This practice covers procedures to perform JK-type inclusion ratings using automatic image analysis in accordance with microscopic methods A and D.
1.3 Depending on the type of steel and the properties required, either a macroscopic or a microscopic method for determining the inclusion content, or combinations of the two methods, may be found most satisfactory.
1.4 These test methods deal only with recommended test methods and nothing in them should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability for any grade of steel.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Values in parentheses are conversions and are approximate.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. ^REFERENCE:
E3 Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens
E7 Terminology Relating to Metallography
E381 Method of Macroetch Testing Steel Bars, Billets, Blooms, and Forgings
E709 Guide for Magnetic Particle Testing
E768 Guide for Preparing and Evaluating Specimens for Automatic Inclusion Assessment of Steel
E1245 Practice for Determining the Inclusion or Second-Phase Constituent Content of Metals by Automatic Image Analysis
E1444 Practice for Magnetic Particle Testing
E1951 Guide for Calibrating Reticles and Light Microscope Magnifications
J422, Recommended Practice for Determination of Inclusions in Steel
Aerospace Material Specifications:
AMS 2300, Premium Aircraft-Quality Steel Cleanliness: Magnetic Particle Inspection Procedure
AMS 2301, Aircraft Quality Steel Cleanliness: Magnetic Particle Inspection Procedure
AMS 2303, Aircraft Quality Steel Cleanliness: Martensitic Corrosion-Resistant Steels Magnetic Particle Inspection Procedure
AMS 2304, Special Aircraft-Quality Steel Cleanliness: Magnetic Particle Inspection Procedure
ISO 3763, Wrought Steels
ISO 4967, Steel
Inclusions in Steel Plates I-r and II
Four Photomicrographs of Low Carbon Steel ^KEYWORDS: alumina; automatic image analysis; complex inclusions; fracture test; globular inclusions; inclusions; inclusion rating; inclusion stringers; JK inclusion rating; light microscopy; macroetch test; magnetic-particle method; oxide; SAM rating; silicate; steel; step-down method; stringer; sulfide ^DOI: 10.1520/E0045-11 ^INDEX TERMS: Alumina; Area fractions; Ferrous metals/alloys; Field area; Fracture testing--metals/alloys; Geometric analysis; Gray level intensity; Image analysis--metals/metallic materials; Inclusions--metals/alloys; JK inclusion ratings; Length of inclusions; Macroetching; Macroscopic analysis; Magnetic particle inspection; Metallographic analysis/inspection; Metals and metallic materials--inclusion rating; Microscopic examination--metals/alloys; Morphology; Nonmetallic inclusions; Oxide inclusions; Photomicrography; SAM; SAM rating; Slab/slabs; Specimen preparation (for testing)--metals/alloys; Steel bars; Steel billets and blooms; Step-down method; Stereological measurement; Stringer; Structural metals/alloys; Sulfide/sulfur environments; Sulfur--steel; Surface analysis--metals/alloys; Visual examination--metals/alloys; Volume fractions ^STATUS: Dn Cn Sn Nn Mn ^APPROVAL: 20110601 ^PAGES: 19 ^COMMITTEE: E04 ^SUBCOMMITTEE: 0900 ^BOS: 03.01 ^ORGINFO: AIAADODNASA ^ACTION: STD_REVISION ^MISCPUB: ^PDESIG: E0045 ^PYEAR: 2011 E0045-11 ^CLASS: Test Method
|Engelse titel||Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel|