ASTM F1166 - 07 en

Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

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Status Ingetrokken
Aantal pagina's 228
Gepubliceerd op 01-01-2007
Taal Engels

1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipments, systems, and subsystems contained therein, including vendor-purchased hardware and software.

1.1.1 The focus of these design criteria is on the design and evaluation of human-machine interfaces, including the interfaces between humans on the one side and controls and displays, physical environments, structures, consoles, panels and workstations, layout and arrangement of ship spaces, maintenance workplaces, labels and signage, alarms, computer screens, material handling, valves, and other specific equipments on the other.

1.2 The criteria contained within this practice shall be applied to the design and construction of all hardware and software within a ship or maritime structure that the human crew members come in contact in any manner for operation, habitability, and maintenance purposes.

1.3 Unless otherwise stated in specific provisions of a ship or maritime structure design contract or specification, this practice is to be used to design maritime vessels, structures, equipment, systems, and subsystems to fit the full potential user population range of 5th % females to 95th % males.

1.4 This practice is divided into the following sections and subsections:

Section and SubsectionsTitle
2Referenced Documents
4Significance and Use
5.1Principles of Control Design
5.2General Design Guidelines
5.3Control Movement
5.4Control Spacing
5.5Coding of Controls
5.6Control Use and Design
6.1Visual Displays
6.2Location, Orientation, Lighting, and Arrangement of Displays
6.3Display Illumination
6.4Display Types
6.5Audible Displays
7.1General Alarm Requirements
7.2Visual Alarms
7.3Audible Alarms
7.4Voice Messages
7.5Alarm Initiation Stations
7.6Alarm Requirements by IMO
8Integration of Controls, Displays, and Alarms
8.1Principles of Design
8.2Grouping Relationships-Principles of Arrangement
8.3Separating Groupings
8.4Position Relationships of Displays and Alarms
8.5Position Relationships of Controls to Associated Displays and Alarms
8.6Control and Display Movement Relationships
8.7Spatial Relationship Between Controls, Displays, and Equipment
8.8Alternative Approach to Grouping Design
8.9Special Requirements for Control and Display Integration on Bridges
9.1General Design Requirements
9.2Static Anthropometric Data
10Workplace Arrangements
10.1Basic Principles of Workplace Design
10.2Seated Workstation
10.3Standing Workstation
10.4Kneeling Workstation
10.5Squatting Workstation
10.7Status Boards and File Cabinets
10.8Work Benches
10.9Vertical Strainers and Filters
10.10Reach Limitations at Workstations
10.11Safety Eyewash Fountains and Showers
10.12Pedestal-Mounted Controls and Displays
10.13Hand Cranks and Pumps
10.14Bulkhead-Mounted Equipment
10.15Equipment Racks, Cabinets, and Individual Equipment Spacing
10.16Consoles and Control Panels
10.17Bridge Design
11Access Aids: Stairs, Handrails, Railings, Vertical Ladders, Ramps, Doors, Lightening Holes, Hatches, Kick-Out Panels, Passageways and Walkways, and Work Platforms)
11.1Stairs, Ladders, and Ramps
11.4Vertical Ladders
11.5Vertical Ladders with Safety Cages
11.6Vertical Ladders with Positive Fall Protection Devices
11.7Special Ladder Requirements
11.8Handle/Hand Grab
11.9Individual Rung Ladders
11.10D-Ring Ladders
11.12Walkways, Passageways, and Alternate Means of Personnel Movement
11.13Elevated Work Platforms
11.14Hatches, Manways, Lightening Holes, Inspection Ports, and Kick-Out Panels
11.15Doors and Arches
11.16Permanent Means of Access (PMA)
12Valve Placement, Orientation, and Location
12.1General Design Requirements
12.2Valve Criticality and Location
12.3Valve-Mounting Heights and Orientations: Handwheel Operated
12.4Valve-Mounting Heights and Orientations: Lever-Operated Valves
12.5Alternative Valve Orientations
12.6Valve Manifolds
13Human-Computer Interface
13.1General Design Requirements
13.2System Operations
13.3Computer Displays
13.4Display Content
13.5Display Coding
13.6Dynamic Displays
13.7Display Format
13.8Textual Data Displays
13.9Graphic Displays
13.10Audio Displays
13.11Data Entry
13.12Interactive Control
13.13Graphic Controls
13.22Error Management/Data Protection
13.23Data Security
13.26Data Transmission/Messaging
13.27Input Devices
14.2Indoor Climate
14.4Whole-body Vibration and Shock
15.1Design Criteria of Labels
15.4Component Labels on Consoles and Panels
15.5Equipment Identification Labels
15.6Electrical System Labels
15.7Room, Deck Space, and Void Identification Labels
15.8Pipe Marker Labels
15.9Safe Working Load Identification Labels
15.10Load Weight Identification Labels
15.11Hazard Identification Signs
15.12Information Signs
15.13Instruction Labels
15.14Graphical Schematics or Diagrams
15.15Orientation Plans
15.16Emergency Instructions
16Material Handling
16.1Design to Support Manual Material Lifting and Carrying
16.2Weight Lifting
16.3Weight Carrying
16.4Design to Push for Manual Material Handling
16.5Design of Handles and Grasp Areas
16.6Design of Auxiliary Hoisting and Carrying Devices
16.7Hand Trucks and Wheeled Dollies
16.8Crane Design
17.1General Design Requirements
17.2Maintenance Accessibility
17.3Maintenance Environments
17.8Hatches, Manways, Lightening Holes for Maintenance Access
17.9Diagnostics and Troubleshooting
17.10Equipment Modularization
17.11Equipment Mounting and Installation
17.13Electrical Wires and Cables
17.16Test Equipment
17.17Fuses and Circuit Breakers
17.18Hydraulic Systems
17.19Stored Energy Devices
17.20Pipe Flanges, Spools, and Blinds
17.21Test and Sample Points
18Hazards and Safety
18.1Safety Labels, Signs, and Excluded Area Markings
18.2General Workplace Hazards
18.3General Equipment-Related Hazards
18.4Electrical Hazards
18.5Mechanical Hazards
18.6Fluid Hazards
18.7Safety Barriers
18.8Fall Protection
18.9Emergency Egress
19.1Communication System Requirements
19.5Telephone Systems
Appendix X1Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Design Checklist
1Control Movement Expectations
2Foot-Operated Switches Design Requirements
3Pedal Location and Design Requirements
4Lateral Spacing for Pedals
5Design Criteria for Discrete Rotary Controls
6Separation Requirements for Discrete Rotary Controls
7Dimension, Resistance, and Separation of Continuous Rotary Controls
8Proper Mounting of Rapidly Operated Cranks
9Dimensions, Resistance, and Separations Required for Cranks
10Design Criteria for Pushbuttons
11Two Types of Legend Switches (Backlit Pushbuttons)
12Size, Displacement, and Resistance for Legend Switches
13Design Requirements for Various Types of Toggle Switches
14Design Requirements for Rocker Switches
15Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Discrete Slide Switch Controls
16Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Continuous Slide Controls
17Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Levers
18Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Slide Levers
19Dimensions, Displacement, and Separation of Push-Pull Controls
20Visual Lines of Sight
21Primary and Secondary Fields-of-View
22Design Criteria for Major, Intermediate, and Minor Scale Markings
23Scale Graduation, Pointer Position, and Scale Numbering Alternatives
24Scale Number Placement
25Color and Shape Coding of Ranges on an Analog Display
26Zero Position and Pointer Movement for Circular Dial Displays
27Aligned Pointers for Rapid Check Readings
28Digital Display Design Requirements
29Grouping Controls and Displays by Common Function
30Grouping Controls and Displays by Individual Equipments
31Mirror-Imaged Arrangement of Individual Equipment Control and Display Groupings (Not Recommended)
32Grouping Controls and Displays by Common Equipment
33Grouping Controls and Displays by Sequence of Use
34Grouping with Physical Separation
35Grouping with Boundary Lines and Borders
36Grouping with Colored and Shaded Pads
37Grouping with Sub-panels
38Position of Individual Controls and Associated Displays for Right-Handed Operator
39Arrangement of Multiple Rows of Controls and Displays
40Arrangement of Multiple Rows of Displays and a Single Row of Controls
41Positional Relationship between Alarm, Display, and Control
42Positional Relationship between Control Pointer and Status Indicator
43Control and Display Movement Relationship
44Spatial Relationship Between Controls, Displays, and Equipment
45Spatial Relationships Between Equipment and Control Panels
46Spatial Relationships for Redundant Controls and Displays
47Panel Layout That Replicates Location of Equipment in Remote Space
48Mimic of Physical Equipment Functional Layout
49Mimic of Functional Groups Irrespective of Equipment Layout
50Standing Body Dimensions
51Seated Body Dimensions
52Depth and Breadth Dimensions
53Hand and Foot Dimensions
54Gloved Hand Dimensions
55Seated Workspace Dimensions
56Dimensions for a Computer Workstation
57Dimensions for Single or Multiple Personnel at a Table or Other Duty Station Not Requiring a Desk
58Seating at CRT-Type Workstations
59Clearance Behind a Seated Workstation
60Control Mounting Height for Seated Personnel
61Display Mounting Height for Seated Personnel
62Control Mounting Height for Standing Personnel
63Display Mounting Height for Standing Personnel
64Control Mounting Height for a Kneeling Person
65Display Mounting Height for Kneeling Personnel
66Required Dimensions for a Kneeling Worker
67Control Mounting Height for Squatting Personnel
68Display Mounting Heights for Squatting Personnel
69Required Dimensions for a Squatting Worker
70Workplace Dimensions for Shelves with Full Access
71Workplace Dimensions for Shelves Located Above a Cabinet
72Workplace Dimensions for Shelves Requiring Vision Over the Top
73Front Clearance Requirement for Lower Shelves
74Mounting Height of Status Boards
75Clearance in Front of Filing Cabinets
76Workbench Dimensions
77Safe Reach Distances Over an Obstacle or Barrier
78Mounting Heights for Bulkhead-Mounted Equipment in Passageways
79Mounting Heights for Common Electrical Fixtures
80Direct Spatial Relationships Between Controls and Equipment
81Spatial Relationship of Fore and Aft Equipment to Controls and Displays on a Console Located Athwartship
82Seated Single-Operator Console Dimensions
83Wraparound Seated Console
84Special Width Console
85Multi-Tiered Standing Console
86Multi-Tiered Seated Console
87Dimensions for Desktop Standing Console
88Cargo and Ballast Transfer Consoles
89Stair Dimensions
90Straight Run Ramp Dimensions
91Ramp with Turning Platform
92Ramp with Switchback Turning Platform
93Vertical Ladder Dimensions
94Dimensions for a Vertical Ladder Arrangement
95Platform/Landing Dimensions for Vertical Ladder Penetration
96Caged Ladder Dimensions
97Cage Shape and Size
98Ladder and Climber Safety Device Dimensions
99Extended Railing for Ladder Fall Protection (Front View)
100Extended Railing for Ladder Fall Protection (Side View)
101Extended Railing and Cage for Ladder Fall Protection (Front View)
102Extended Railing and Cage for Ladder Fall Protection (Side View)
103Handles or Hand Grabs for Use as Ladder Extensions
104Handle for Transition from a Ladder to an Intermediate Platform
105Recommended Design Criteria for Individual Rung Ladders
106Dimensions for D-Ring Ladders
107Fixed Handrail Design
108Removable Handrail Dimensions
109Special Handrail Design Dimensions
110Transition Handrail Dimensions
111Additional Personnel Movement-Related Design Features
112Dimensions for Rectangular Access Openings Installed in a Vertical Orientation Requiring a Step to Reach the Opening
113Dimensions for Rectangular, Square, and Round Hatches, Manways, and Lightening Holes
114Dimensions for Lightening Holes
115Access to Vertical Escape Hatches
116Access to Overhead Hatch
117Access into a Cargo Hold Through a Raised Hatch
118Door Placement
119Desirable Upper Limits for Handwheel Torque
120Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Vertical Stems
121Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Horizontal Stems
122Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Angled Stems
123Mounting Heights for Lever-Operated Valves With Vertical Stems
124Mounting Heights for Lever-Operated Valves With Horizontal Stems
125Direction of Travel for Valve Levers Accessible From One Side Only
126Physical Reach from a Stooping or Squatting Position
127Mounting Position for Valve Levers and Handwheels Below Standing Surface
128Orientation and Reach from Ladder Parallel to Valves
129Orientation and Reach from Ladder Perpendicular to Valves
130Operating Valves from a Ladder
131Valve Manifold for Tanks Located Athwartship
132Valve Manifold for Tanks Located Fore and Aft
133Valve Manifold for Fill, High-Suction, and Low-Suction Valves
134Default Push Button
135Push Button States
136Radio Buttons
137Check Boxes
138Slider Control
139Message Window Design
140Finger-Operated Displacement Joystick Specifications
141Trackball Dimensions, Resistance, and Clearance
142Permissible Noise Exposure Limits
143Large Enclosure Ventilation Requirements
144Surface Reflectance Values
145Health Guidance Zones for Limited Exposures
146Independent Symbols
147Guidelines for Labels on Consoles and Panels
148Control and Control Setting Labels
149Control and Display Group Labels
150Control Setting Labels for Multiple Controls
151Equipment Label Format
152Sensor Label
153Pipe Marker Labels
154Pipe Marker Labels with Two Colors
155Hazard Signal Word Headers
156Examples of Text and Symbol on Signs
157Example of Information Sign
158Examples of Push-Pull Forces
159Handle Dimensions
160Use of Hand Trucks
161Use of Dollies
162Case Orientation
163Access Opening Covers
164Example of Alignment Pins
165Cable Arrangements
166Suggested Cable Arrangement in a Junction Box
167Fluid Line Connection Recommendations
168Areas Not To Place Items on Bulkhead
169Safety Barriers
1Recommended Manual Controls
2Control Movement Expectations
3Minimum Spacing Between Two Controls
4Comparison of Displacement and Isometric Controls
5Typical Status Display and Alarm Color Codes for North American Industry
6Character Sizes for Digital Displays
7Functional Evaluation of Types of Audio Signals
8Guidelines for Color Coding of Visual Alarms
9General Recommendations for Sound Loudness and Frequency
10Guidelines for Selecting Audible Alarm Sounds
11Clothing and Postural Effects
12International Geographical Regions for Which Anthropometric Data Are Available
13Standing Height Dimensions-International Population
14Seated Eye Height Dimensions-International Population
15Forward Functional Reach Dimensions-International Population
16Male Anthropometric Data from Four Regions of the World
17Female Anthropometric Data from Four Regions of the World
18Weights for American Adult Females and Males
19Seated Workspace Dimensions
20Dimensions for a Seated Computer Workstation
21Maximum Overhead Extended and Gripping Reach
22Selection of Access Type
23Stair Dimensions
24Stair Widths
25Handrail Arrangements
26Recommended Ramp Angle Inclinations
27Walkway and Passageway Dimensions
28Dimensions for Additional Personnel Movement-Related Features
29Access Opening and Mounting Depth Dimensions for Levers and Handwheels Mounted Below the Standing Surface
30System Response Time Limits
31Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonkeyboard Input Devices
32Keyboard Push-Button Characteristics
33Pointer Shapes and Associated Functions
34Pointing Device Button Actions
35Limiting Dimensions for Mouse
36Maximum Permissible Noise Levels
37Noise Attenuation from Hearing Protectors
38Lighting Levels for Ships and Maritime Structures
39Maximum Brightness Ratios
40Operational Environment Types
41Examples of Equipment Labels
42Pipe Label Format
43Example Color-Coding Scheme for Vessel/Structure Piping
44Chromaticity Coordinates for Color Coding
45Message Text Character Heights
46Design Weight Limits for Lifting
47Design Weight Limits for Carrying
48Limiting Factors
49Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
50Cross-Legged Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
51Standing, Forward Reach (Both Arms)
52Standing, Forward Reach (Preferred Arm)
53Standing, Lateral Reach (Preferred Arm)
54Opening Dimensions for Single-Hand Access with Tools
55Opening Dimensions for Single-Hand Access without Tools
56Opening Dimensions for Arm Access without Tools
57Opening Dimensions for Two-Hand Access
58Thermal Temperature Limits
59Shock Current Intensities and Their Probable Consequences
60Minimum Speech Intelligibility Scores
X1.1Human Factors Checklist for Design

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


ICS-code 47.020.01
Engelse titel Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
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