Norm

ASTM F1166-07(2013)

Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

113,37

Over deze norm

Status Definitief
Aantal pagina's 228
Commissie F25.07
Gepubliceerd op 01-10-2013
Taal Engels

1.1 This practice provides ergonomic design criteria from a human-machine perspective for the design and construction of maritime vessels and structures and for equipments, systems, and subsystems contained therein, including vendor-purchased hardware and software.

1.1.1 The focus of these design criteria is on the design and evaluation of human-machine interfaces, including the interfaces between humans on the one side and controls and displays, physical environments, structures, consoles, panels and workstations, layout and arrangement of ship spaces, maintenance workplaces, labels and signage, alarms, computer screens, material handling, valves, and other specific equipments on the other.

1.2 The criteria contained within this practice shall be applied to the design and construction of all hardware and software within a ship or maritime structure that the human crew members come in contact in any manner for operation, habitability, and maintenance purposes.

1.3 Unless otherwise stated in specific provisions of a ship or maritime structure design contract or specification, this practice is to be used to design maritime vessels, structures, equipment, systems, and subsystems to fit the full potential user population range of 5th % females to 95th % males.

1.4 This practice is divided into the following sections and subsections:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section and
Subsections

Title

1

Scope

2

Referenced Documents

3

Terminology

4

Significance and Use

5

Controls

5.1

Principles of Control Design

5.2

General Design Guidelines

5.3

Control Movement

5.4

Control Spacing

5.5

Coding of Controls

5.6

Control Use and Design

6

Displays

6.1

Visual Displays

6.2

Location, Orientation, Lighting, and Arrangement of Displays

6.3

Display Illumination

6.4

Display Types

6.5

Audible Displays

7

Alarms

7.1

General Alarm Requirements

7.2

Visual Alarms

7.3

Audible Alarms

7.4

Voice Messages

7.5

Alarm Initiation Stations

7.6

Alarm Requirements by IMO

8

Integration of Controls, Displays, and Alarms

8.1

Principles of Design

8.2

Grouping Relationships—Principles of Arrangement

8.3

Separating Groupings

8.4

Position Relationships of Displays and Alarms

8.5

Position Relationships of Controls to Associated Displays and Alarms

8.6

Control and Display Movement Relationships

8.7

Spatial Relationship Between Controls, Displays, and Equipment

8.8

Alternative Approach to Grouping Design

8.9

Special Requirements for Control and Display Integration on Bridges

9

Anthropometry

9.1

General Design Requirements

9.2

Static Anthropometric Data

10

Workplace Arrangements

10.1

Basic Principles of Workplace Design

10.2

Seated Workstation

10.3

Standing Workstation

10.4

Kneeling Workstation

10.5

Squatting Workstation

10.6

Shelving

10.7

Status Boards and File Cabinets

10.8

Work Benches

10.9

Vertical Strainers and Filters

10.10

Reach Limitations at Workstations

10.11

Safety Eyewash Fountains and Showers

10.12

Pedestal-Mounted Controls and Displays

10.13

Hand Cranks and Pumps

10.14

Bulkhead-Mounted Equipment

10.15

Equipment Racks, Cabinets, and Individual Equipment Spacing

10.16

Consoles and Control Panels

10.17

Bridge Design

11

Access Aids: Stairs, Handrails, Railings, Vertical Ladders, Ramps, Doors, Lightening Holes, Hatches, Kick-Out Panels, Passageways and Walkways, and Work Platforms)

11.1

Stairs, Ladders, and Ramps

11.2

Stairs

11.3

Ramps

11.4

Vertical Ladders

11.5

Vertical Ladders with Safety Cages

11.6

Vertical Ladders with Positive Fall Protection Devices

11.7

Special Ladder Requirements

11.8

Handle/Hand Grab

11.9

Individual Rung Ladders

11.10

D-Ring Ladders

11.11

Handrails

11.12

Walkways, Passageways, and Alternate Means of Personnel Movement

11.13

Elevated Work Platforms

11.14

Hatches, Manways, Lightening Holes, Inspection Ports, and Kick-Out Panels

11.15

Doors and Arches

11.16

Permanent Means of Access (PMA)

12

Valve Placement, Orientation, and Location

12.1

General Design Requirements

12.2

Valve Criticality and Location

12.3

Valve-Mounting Heights and Orientations: Handwheel Operated

12.4

Valve-Mounting Heights and Orientations: Lever-Operated Valves

12.5

Alternative Valve Orientations

12.6

Valve Manifolds

13

Human-Computer Interface

13.1

General Design Requirements

13.2

System Operations

13.3

Computer Displays

13.4

Display Content

13.5

Display Coding

13.6

Dynamic Displays

13.7

Display Format

13.8

Textual Data Displays

13.9

Graphic Displays

13.10

Audio Displays

13.11

Data Entry

13.12

Interactive Control

13.13

Graphic Controls

13.14

Windows

13.15

Menus

13.16

Forms

13.17

Alarms

13.18

Language

13.19

Feedback

13.20

Prompts

13.21

Defaults

13.22

Error Management/Data Protection

13.23

Data Security

13.24

Help

13.25

Software

13.26

Data Transmission/Messaging

13.27

Input Devices

13.28

Cursors

13.29

Printing

14

Habitability

14.1

Noise

14.2

Indoor Climate

14.3

Lighting

14.4

Whole-body Vibration and Shock

15

Labeling

15.1

Design Criteria of Labels

15.2

Abbreviations

15.3

Symbols

15.4

Component Labels on Consoles and Panels

15.5

Equipment Identification Labels

15.6

Electrical System Labels

15.7

Room, Deck Space, and Void Identification Labels

15.8

Pipe Marker Labels

15.9

Safe Working Load Identification Labels

15.10

Load Weight Identification Labels

15.11

Hazard Identification Signs

15.12

Information Signs

15.13

Instruction Labels

15.14

Graphical Schematics or Diagrams

15.15

Orientation Plans

15.16

Emergency Instructions

16

Material Handling

16.1

Design to Support Manual Material Lifting and Carrying

16.2

Weight Lifting

16.3

Weight Carrying

16.4

Design to Push for Manual Material Handling

16.5

Design of Handles and Grasp Areas

16.6

Design of Auxiliary Hoisting and Carrying Devices

16.7

Hand Trucks and Wheeled Dollies

16.8

Crane Design

17

Maintenance

17.1

General Design Requirements

17.2

Maintenance Accessibility

17.3

Maintenance Environments

17.4

Lubrication

17.5

Cases

17.6

Covers

17.7

Fasteners

17.8

Hatches, Manways, Lightening Holes for Maintenance Access

17.9

Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

17.10

Equipment Modularization

17.11

Equipment Mounting and Installation

17.12

Standardization

17.13

Electrical Wires and Cables

17.14

Conductors

17.15

Connectors

17.16

Test Equipment

17.17

Fuses and Circuit Breakers

17.18

Hydraulic Systems

17.19

Stored Energy Devices

17.20

Pipe Flanges, Spools, and Blinds

17.21

Test and Sample Points

18

Hazards and Safety

18.1

Safety Labels, Signs, and Excluded Area Markings

18.2

General Workplace Hazards

18.3

General Equipment-Related Hazards

18.4

Electrical Hazards

18.5

Mechanical Hazards

18.6

Fluid Hazards

18.7

Safety Barriers

18.8

Fall Protection

18.9

Emergency Egress

19

Communications

19.1

Communication System Requirements

19.2

Microphones

19.3

Headsets

19.4

Loudspeakers

19.5

Telephone Systems

Appendix X1

Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Design Checklist


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Title

1

Control Movement Expectations

2

Foot-Operated Switches Design Requirements

3

Pedal Location and Design Requirements

4

Lateral Spacing for Pedals

5

Design Criteria for Discrete Rotary Controls

6

Separation Requirements for Discrete Rotary Controls

7

Dimension, Resistance, and Separation of Continuous Rotary Controls

8

Proper Mounting of Rapidly Operated Cranks

9

Dimensions, Resistance, and Separations Required for Cranks

10

Design Criteria for Pushbuttons

11

Two Types of Legend Switches (Backlit Pushbuttons)

12

Size, Displacement, and Resistance for Legend Switches

13

Design Requirements for Various Types of Toggle Switches

14

Design Requirements for Rocker Switches

15

Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Discrete Slide Switch Controls

16

Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Continuous Slide Controls

17

Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Levers

18

Dimensions, Resistance, and Separation for Slide Levers

19

Dimensions, Displacement, and Separation of Push-Pull Controls

20

Visual Lines of Sight

21

Primary and Secondary Fields-of-View

22

Design Criteria for Major, Intermediate, and Minor Scale Markings

23

Scale Graduation, Pointer Position, and Scale Numbering Alternatives

24

Scale Number Placement

25

Color and Shape Coding of Ranges on an Analog Display

26

Zero Position and Pointer Movement for Circular Dial Displays

27

Aligned Pointers for Rapid Check Readings

28

Digital Display Design Requirements

29

Grouping Controls and Displays by Common Function

30

Grouping Controls and Displays by Individual Equipments

31

Mirror-Imaged Arrangement of Individual Equipment Control and Display Groupings (Not Recommended)

32

Grouping Controls and Displays by Common Equipment

33

Grouping Controls and Displays by Sequence of Use

34

Grouping with Physical Separation

35

Grouping with Boundary Lines and Borders

36

Grouping with Colored and Shaded Pads

37

Grouping with Sub-panels

38

Position of Individual Controls and Associated Displays for Right-Handed Operator

39

Arrangement of Multiple Rows of Controls and Displays

40

Arrangement of Multiple Rows of Displays and a Single Row of Controls

41

Positional Relationship between Alarm, Display, and Control

42

Positional Relationship between Control Pointer and Status Indicator

43

Control and Display Movement Relationship

44

Spatial Relationship Between Controls, Displays, and Equipment

45

Spatial Relationships Between Equipment and Control Panels

46

Spatial Relationships for Redundant Controls and Displays

47

Panel Layout That Replicates Location of Equipment in Remote Space

48

Mimic of Physical Equipment Functional Layout

49

Mimic of Functional Groups Irrespective of Equipment Layout

50

Standing Body Dimensions

51

Seated Body Dimensions

52

Depth and Breadth Dimensions

53

Hand and Foot Dimensions

54

Gloved Hand Dimensions

55

Seated Workspace Dimensions

56

Dimensions for a Computer Workstation

57

Dimensions for Single or Multiple Personnel at a Table or Other Duty Station Not Requiring a Desk

58

Seating at CRT-Type Workstations

59

Clearance Behind a Seated Workstation

60

Control Mounting Height for Seated Personnel

61

Display Mounting Height for Seated Personnel

62

Control Mounting Height for Standing Personnel

63

Display Mounting Height for Standing Personnel

64

Control Mounting Height for a Kneeling Person

65

Display Mounting Height for Kneeling Personnel

66

Required Dimensions for a Kneeling Worker

67

Control Mounting Height for Squatting Personnel

68

Display Mounting Heights for Squatting Personnel

69

Required Dimensions for a Squatting Worker

70

Workplace Dimensions for Shelves with Full Access

71

Workplace Dimensions for Shelves Located Above a Cabinet

72

Workplace Dimensions for Shelves Requiring Vision Over the Top

73

Front Clearance Requirement for Lower Shelves

74

Mounting Height of Status Boards

75

Clearance in Front of Filing Cabinets

76

Workbench Dimensions

77

Safe Reach Distances Over an Obstacle or Barrier

78

Mounting Heights for Bulkhead-Mounted Equipment in Passageways

79

Mounting Heights for Common Electrical Fixtures

80

Direct Spatial Relationships Between Controls and Equipment

81

Spatial Relationship of Fore and Aft Equipment to Controls and Displays on a Console Located Athwartship

82

Seated Single-Operator Console Dimensions

83

Wraparound Seated Console

84

Special Width Console

85

Multi-Tiered Standing Console

86

Multi-Tiered Seated Console

87

Dimensions for Desktop Standing Console

88

Cargo and Ballast Transfer Consoles

89

Stair Dimensions

90

Straight Run Ramp Dimensions

91

Ramp with Turning Platform

92

Ramp with Switchback Turning Platform

93

Vertical Ladder Dimensions

94

Dimensions for a Vertical Ladder Arrangement

95

Platform/Landing Dimensions for Vertical Ladder Penetration

96

Caged Ladder Dimensions

97

Cage Shape and Size

98

Ladder and Climber Safety Device Dimensions

99

Extended Railing for Ladder Fall Protection (Front View)

100

Extended Railing for Ladder Fall Protection (Side View)

101

Extended Railing and Cage for Ladder Fall Protection (Front View)

102

Extended Railing and Cage for Ladder Fall Protection (Side View)

103

Handles or Hand Grabs for Use as Ladder Extensions

104

Handle for Transition from a Ladder to an Intermediate Platform

105

Recommended Design Criteria for Individual Rung Ladders

106

Dimensions for D-Ring Ladders

107

Fixed Handrail Design

108

Removable Handrail Dimensions

109

Special Handrail Design Dimensions

110

Transition Handrail Dimensions

111

Additional Personnel Movement-Related Design Features

112

Dimensions for Rectangular Access Openings Installed in a Vertical Orientation Requiring a Step to Reach the Opening

113

Dimensions for Rectangular, Square, and Round Hatches, Manways, and Lightening Holes

114

Dimensions for Lightening Holes

115

Access to Vertical Escape Hatches

116

Access to Overhead Hatch

117

Access into a Cargo Hold Through a Raised Hatch

118

Door Placement

119

Desirable Upper Limits for Handwheel Torque

120

Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Vertical Stems

121

Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Horizontal Stems

122

Mounting Heights for Handwheel Valves With Angled Stems

123

Mounting Heights for Lever-Operated Valves With Vertical Stems

124

Mounting Heights for Lever-Operated Valves With Horizontal Stems

125

Direction of Travel for Valve Levers Accessible From One Side Only

126

Physical Reach from a Stooping or Squatting Position

127

Mounting Position for Valve Levers and Handwheels Below Standing Surface

128

Orientation and Reach from Ladder Parallel to Valves

129

Orientation and Reach from Ladder Perpendicular to Valves

130

Operating Valves from a Ladder

131

Valve Manifold for Tanks Located Athwartship

132

Valve Manifold for Tanks Located Fore and Aft

133

Valve Manifold for Fill, High-Suction, and Low-Suction Valves

134

Default Push Button

135

Push Button States

136

Radio Buttons

137

Check Boxes

138

Slider Control

139

Message Window Design

140

Finger-Operated Displacement Joystick Specifications

141

Trackball Dimensions, Resistance, and Clearance

142

Permissible Noise Exposure Limits

143

Large Enclosure Ventilation Requirements

144

Surface Reflectance Values

145

Health Guidance Zones for Limited Exposures

146

Independent Symbols

147

Guidelines for Labels on Consoles and Panels

148

Control and Control Setting Labels

149

Control and Display Group Labels

150

Control Setting Labels for Multiple Controls

151

Equipment Label Format

152

Sensor Label

153

Pipe Marker Labels

154

Pipe Marker Labels with Two Colors

155

Hazard Signal Word Headers

156

Examples of Text and Symbol on Signs

157

Example of Information Sign

158

Examples of Push-Pull Forces

159

Handle Dimensions

160

Use of Hand Trucks

161

Use of Dollies

162

Case Orientation

163

Access Opening Covers

164

Example of Alignment Pins

165

Cable Arrangements

166

Suggested Cable Arrangement in a Junction Box

167

Fluid Line Connection Recommendations

168

Areas Not To Place Items on Bulkhead

169

Safety Barriers


LIST OF TABLES

Table

Title

1

Recommended Manual Controls

2

Control Movement Expectations

3

Minimum Spacing Between Two Controls

4

Comparison of Displacement and Isometric Controls

5

Typical Status Display and Alarm Color Codes for North American Industry

6

Character Sizes for Digital Displays

7

Functional Evaluation of Types of Audio Signals

8

Guidelines for Color Coding of Visual Alarms

9

General Recommendations for Sound Loudness and Frequency

10

Guidelines for Selecting Audible Alarm Sounds

11

Clothing and Postural Effects

12

International Geographical Regions for Which Anthropometric Data Are Available

13

Standing Height Dimensions—International Population

14

Seated Eye Height Dimensions—International Population

15

Forward Functional Reach Dimensions—International Population

16

Male Anthropometric Data from Four Regions of the World

17

Female Anthropometric Data from Four Regions of the World

18

Weights for American Adult Females and Males

19

Seated Workspace Dimensions

20

Dimensions for a Seated Computer Workstation

21

Maximum Overhead Extended and Gripping Reach

22

Selection of Access Type

23

Stair Dimensions

24

Stair Widths

25

Handrail Arrangements

26

Recommended Ramp Angle Inclinations

27

Walkway and Passageway Dimensions

28

Dimensions for Additional Personnel Movement-Related Features

29

Access Opening and Mounting Depth Dimensions for Levers and Handwheels Mounted Below the Standing Surface

30

System Response Time Limits

31

Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonkeyboard Input Devices

32

Keyboard Push-Button Characteristics

33

Pointer Shapes and Associated Functions

34

Pointing Device Button Actions

35

Limiting Dimensions for Mouse

36

Maximum Permissible Noise Levels

37

Noise Attenuation from Hearing Protectors

38

Lighting Levels for Ships and Maritime Structures

39

Maximum Brightness Ratios

40

Operational Environment Types

41

Examples of Equipment Labels

42

Pipe Label Format

43

Example Color-Coding Scheme for Vessel/Structure Piping

44

Chromaticity Coordinates for Color Coding

45

Message Text Character Heights

46

Design Weight Limits for Lifting

47

Design Weight Limits for Carrying

48

Limiting Factors

49

Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)

50

Cross-Legged Seated, Forward Reach (Both Arms)

51

Standing, Forward Reach (Both Arms)

52

Standing, Forward Reach (Preferred Arm)

53

Standing, Lateral Reach (Preferred Arm)

54

Opening Dimensions for Single-Hand Access with Tools

55

Opening Dimensions for Single-Hand Access without Tools

56

Opening Dimensions for Arm Access without Tools

57

Opening Dimensions for Two-Hand Access

58

Thermal Temperature Limits

59

Shock Current Intensities and Their Probable Consequences

60

Minimum Speech Intelligibility Scores

X1.1

Human Factors Checklist for Design


1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Details

ICS-code 47.020.01
Nederlandse titel Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities
Engelse titel Standard Practice for Human Engineering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities

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