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1.1 This test method covers the determination of mechanical behavior of polymeric biomaterials by small punch testing of miniature disk specimens (0.5 mm in thickness and 6.4 mm in diameter). The test method has been established for characterizing surgical materials after ram extrusion or compression molding (1-3)2; for evaluating as-manufactured implants and sterilization method effects (4, 5); as well as for testing of implants that have been retrieved (explanted) from the human body (6, 7).
1.2 The results of the small punch test, namely the peak load, ultimate displacement, ultimate load, and work to failure, provide metrics of the yielding, ultimate strength, ductility, and toughness under multiaxial loading conditions. Because the mechanical behavior can be different when loaded under uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions (8), the small punch test provides a complementary mechanical testing technique to the uniaxial tensile test. However, it should be noted that the small punch test results may not correlate with uniaxial tensile test results.
1.3 In addition to its use as a research tool in implant retrieval analysis, the small punch test can be used as a laboratory screening test to evaluate new materials with minimal material waste (1).
1.4 The small punch test has been applied to other polymers, including polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, polyacetal, and high density polyethylene (HDPE), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) (2, 3, 5, 10, 11). This standard outlines general guidelines for the small punch testing of implantable polymers.
|Engelse titel||Standard Test Method for Small Punch Testing of Polymeric Biomaterials Used in Surgical Implants|