CWA 45547:2004 en

Handleiding voor toepassing van warmte/kracht koppeling


Over deze norm

Status Definitief
Aantal pagina's 78
Commissie Beleidscommissie Elektriciteitsvoorziening
Gepubliceerd op 01-09-2004
Taal Engels
CHP can make significant fuel and emissions savings over conventional, separate forms of power generation and heat-only boilers. The generation of electricity from power stations is generally at efficiencies in the range 30-55%, based on the Net Calorific Value (NCV) or Lower Heating Value (LHV) of the fuel. Further losses occur in the transmission and distribution of electricity to customers. This means that 45-70% of the energy content of the fuel is not usefully employed. This unutilised energy content is rejected as heat directly to the atmosphere or into seas or rivers. The generation of electricity and the recovery of heat in CHP plants typically achieve overall efficiencies of 70-90% and above, corresponding to efficiencies of heat only boilers. The higher the overall efficiency and the power to heat ratio, the more effective the CHP process. Unlike conventional methods of electricity generation, in order to achieve such high overall efficiencies, some of the heat cogenerated in a CHP Scheme is usefully employed in industrial processes or for heating and hot water in buildings. The heat used in this way displaces heat that would otherwise have to be supplied by burning additional fuel in boilers or other direct-fired equipment and so also leads directly to a reduction in CO2-emissions. The development of CHP plays a crucial role in the European energy policy for reducing CO2- emissions. The determination of CHP products (heat and power outputs) is important not only for the CHP Directive [1] but also for the European Emissions Trading Scheme [2], State Aid guidelines for environmental improvement and the energy taxation Directive [3]. The objective of the CEN/CENELEC Workshop Agreement is to present a set of transparent and accurate formulae and definitions for determination of CHP (cogeneration) energy products and the referring energy inputs. The CEN/CENELEC Workshop Agreement shall simply formulate the procedure for quantifying CHP output and inputs, such as CHP electrical energy, CHP mechanical energy, CHP heat energy and CHP fuel energy. It does not include quality rankings such as assessments of fuel savings or environmental impact. Gathering statistics and monitoring developments in the combined heat and power sector is difficult and can contain a considerable number of uncertainties. Some CHP plants may decouple the generation of heat and power at certain times or to a certain extent and thus CHP and NON-CHP electricity and heat may be generated in the same plant. The lack of reliable information and transparency may be considered in itself as a barrier to the further development of the technology and negatively affects the image of the CHP sector. To remove the ambiguity resulting from a lack of standardised procedures across Europe, a set of widely accepted determination rules is needed. Such rules will create greater certainty that the basic concept of CHP is understood and determined in the same way. As a result of this requirement the CEN2) /CENELEC3) Workshop on "Manual for Determination of Combined Heat and Power (CHP)" was initiated. It ran in parallel to the discussions on the Directive on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market [1].


ICS-code 27.100
Nederlandse titel Handleiding voor toepassing van warmte/kracht koppeling
Engelse titel Manual for Determination of Combined Heat and Power (CHP)



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