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This standard:- defines the forces and moments to be taken into account with reference to masses and braking conditions;- gives the stress calculation method for axles with outside axle-journals;- specifies the maximum permissible stresses to be assumed in calculations, for steel grade EA1N defined in prEN 13261:1998;- describes how to obtain the maximum permissible stresses for other steel grades;- determines the diameters for the various sections of the axle. The preferred shapes and transitions are identified to ensure adequate service performance.This standard is applicable to:- solid and hollow axles of railway rolling stock used for the carriage of passengers and freight;- axles defined in prEN 13261:1998;- all gauges (If the gauge is not standard, some formulae need to be adapted).This standard is applicable to non powered axles fitted to rolling stock intended to run under normal European conditions. Before the use of this standard, if there is any doubt as to whether the railway operating conditions are normal, it is necessary to determine whether an additional design factor has to be applied to the maximum permissible stresses. The calculation of wheelsets for special applications (e.g.: tamping/lining/levelling machines) may be made according to this standard only for the load cases of free running and running in train formation. This standard does not apply for workload cases. They are calculated separately.For light rail and tramway applications other standards or documents, agreed between the customer and supplier, may be applied.Non powered axles of motor bogies and locomotives are analysed according to the requirements of the EN 13104.