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This standard: 1) defines the forces and moments to be taken into account with reference to masses and braking conditions; 2) gives the stress calculation method for axles with outside axle journals; 3) specifies the maximum permissible stresses to be assumed in calculations for steel grade EA1N defined in EN 13261; 4) describes the method for determination of the maximum permissible stresses for other steel grades; 5) determines the diameters for the various sections of the axle and recommends the preferred shapes and transitions to ensure adequate service performance. This standard is applicable to: 6) solid and hollow axles of railway rolling stock used for the transportation of passengers and freight; 7) axles defined in EN 13261; 8) all gauges3. This standard is applicable to axles fitted to rolling stock intended to run under normal European conditions. Before using this standard, if there is any doubt as to whether the railway operating conditions are normal, it is necessary to determine whether an additional design factor has to be applied to the maximum permissible stresses. The calculation of wheelsets for special applications (e.g. tamping/lining/levelling machines) may be made according to this standard only for the load cases of free-running and running in train formation. This standard does not apply to workload cases. They are calculated separately. For light rail and tramway applications, other standards or documents agreed between the customer and supplier may be applied. Non-powered axles of motor bogies and locomotives are analysed according to the requirements of EN 13104.