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This standard:- defines the forces and moments to be taken into account with reference to masses, traction and braking conditions;- gives the stress calculation method for axles with outside axle-journals;- specifies the maximum permissible stresses to be assumed in calculations, for steel grade EA1N defined in prEN 13261:1998;- describes how to obtain the maximum permissible stresses for other steel grades;- determines the diameters for the various sections of the axle. The preferred shapes and transitions are identified to ensure adequate service performance.This standard is applicable to:- solid and hollow powered axles for railway rolling stock;- solid and hollow non-powered axles of motor bogies;- solid and hollow non-powered axles of locomotives;- axles defined in prEN 13261:1998;- all gauges. If the gauge is not standard, some formulae need to be adapted.This standard is applicable to axles fitted to rolling stock intended to run under normal European conditions. Before the use of this standard, if there is any doubt as to whether the railway operating conditions are normal, it is necessary to determine whether an additional design factor has to be applied to the maximum permissible stresses. The calculation of wheelsets for special applications (e.g. tamping/lining/levelling machines) may be made according to the submitted standard, for the load case of free running and running in train formation. This standard is not applicable for workload cases. They are calculated separately.For light rail and tramway applications other standards or documents, agreed between the customer and supplier, may be applied.